Learning and Teaching in Multigrade Settings IOE logo


pupils on a school yard in Sri Lanka The bibliographic materials on this site have been arranged as follows:

Alphabetically by author
There are currently around 170 references arranged by the surname of the author

By geographical region 
Reference materials are broadly categorised by the geographical location on which they focus

The research bibliography consists of references to both multiage and multigrade literature. The following key words have been used to search the literature: multigrade, multiage, mixed age, combination class, multiple class, vertical grouping, small schools, rural schools, single teacher schools.Each reference in the bibliography has a link from the surname of the author to an annotation for the reference. Click on the link to go to the annotation.

Many of the articles and books referenced in this annotated bibliography are available in print in the Institute of Education Library - search the IOE library catalogue using the key word 'multiple classes'.

Annotations have been written by the following authors:


This is a working document. We welcome contributions from others who use this website.



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