The literature from North America has further been divided into the following three categories. Click here for definitions.
Concilus, J. and R., 1994. A multigrade curriculum for small schools. Nelson Lagoon School, Anchorage. Link to the curriculum Multigrade Curriculum
Dodendorf, D.M., 1983, A unique rural school environment. Psychology in the Schools 20 (1): 99-104
Dreier ,William H., 1949. The differential achievement of rural graded and ungraded school pupils. Journal of Educational Research 43 (3): 175-18
Dunne, F., 1977. Choosing smallness: an examination of the small school experience in rural America in Sher, Jonathan P. (ed.) Education in rural America: a reassessment of conventional wisdom. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado
Edmunds, E.L., Bessai, F., 1977. Small schools. Headteachers Review 68 (3): 54-56
Edmunds, E.L., Bessai, F., 1978. Small schools. Headteachers' review 69: 2-5
Finley, Carmen J.; Thompson Jack M. (1963) A comparison of the achievement of multi-graded and single-graded rural elementary school children .The Journal of Educational Research 56 (9): 471-475
Martens, C.C., 1954. Educational achievements of eighth-grade pupils in one-room rural and graded town schools. The Elementary School Journal 54 (9): 523-525
Miller, B.A., 1989. The multigrade classroom: a resource handbook for small rural schools Regional Educational Laboratory: Oregon, USA. Full text
Mulcahy, D., 1993. Developing a 'distinctive approach' for multi-grade classrooms: some preliminary considerations Education Canada 33 (1): 24-29
Sher, J.P., 1977. Education in rural America: A reassessment of conventional wisdom. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado
Learning together: A manual for multiage grouping. Corwin Press Inc, Thousand Oaks, California
Gaustad, J., 1992. Nongraded primary education. ERIC Digest, Number 74.
Gusky, T.R., Lindle, J.C., 1997. Research on multi-age/multi-grade classes: report to the teaching and learning issues group. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 420915.
Heeney, M.R., 1996. The implementation process of two multigrade/multiyear teams in two middle schools in South Florida: a cross-site case study. Paper presented at the annual conference of the national Middle School Association (23rd, Baltimore, MD, October 31-November 3, 1996).
Matthews, M.W et al., 1997. A comparative study of the literacy development of at-risk children in graded versus nongraded classrooms. Reading Research and Instruction 36 (3): 225-239
McClellan, D.E.,Kinsey, S.J., 1999. Children's social behaviour in relation to participation in mixed-age or same-age classrooms. Early Childhood Education Research and Pracitce, 1 (1). Full text
Milburn, D. 1981. A study of multi-age or family-grouped classrooms Phi Delta Kappan 62 (7): 513-514
Mulcahy, D., 1999. From multigrade to multiage: A journey of discovery, affirmation and transformation. Paper presented at the sustainability of small rural schools across the North Atlantic Rim: 50th anniversary symposium (August 11-15, 1999): St Anthony, Newfoundland, Canada
Oberlander, T. M., 1989. A nongraded, multi-aged program that works. Principal 68 (5): 29-30
Schrankler, W.J., 1976. Family groupings and the affective domain. The Elementary School Journal 76: 432-439
Adams, J.J., 1953. Achievement and social adjustment of pupils in combination classes enrolling pupils of more than one grade level. Journal of Educational Research, 47: 151-155.
Brown, K.G., Martin, A.B., 1989. Student achievement in multigrade and single grade classes. Education Canada 29 (2): 10-13
Campbell, G. 1993. Assessing the impact of multigrade classes: an annotated bibliography. The Canadian Modern Language Review 49 (2): 345-364
Daniel, I.H., 1988. 'Doing the splits': core French in the elementary Schools. The impact of combined classes on students The Canadian Modern Language Review 45 (1) : 146-154
Gautrey, F., 1990. Cross age tutoring in Frankley. Reading 24 (1): 21-27
Knight, E. E. 1938. A study of double grades in New Haven city schools. Journal of Experimental Education 7 (1): 11-18
Mason, D.A. S., J. 1996. Combination and non-graded classes: definitions and frequency in twelve states The Elementary School Journal 96 (4): 439-452
Mason, D. A., Burns, R.B. 1996. Teachers' views of combination classes. Journal of Educational Research 89 (1): 36-45.
Mason, D.A., Good, T.L., 1996. Mathematics instruction in combination and single grade classes: an exploratory investigation. Teachers College Record 98 (2): 236-265.
Mason, D. A., Doepner, R.W., 1998. Principal's views of combination classes. Journal of Educational Research 91 (3): 160-172.
Rule, J., 1983. Effects of multigrade grouping on elementary school achievement in reading and mathematics. Mesa Public Schools, Arizona Dept of Records and Evaluation: Arizona.
Smith, L.M., Geoffrey, W., 1968. The complexities of an urban classroom: an analysis toward a general theory of teaching. Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc., U.S.A.
Stimson, J., 1992. The effects of multigrade classes on student achievement in year-round schools. Unpublished PhD thesis: Northern Arizona University, Arizona
Stone, W., 1986. A study of the relationship between multigrading and academic progress of elementary school students. Unpublished PhD thesis: George Peabody College for Teachers of Vanderbilt University.
Walsh, J.M., 1989. Attitudes of students, parents, and teachers toward multigrading. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Connecticut.
The literature from the United Kingdom has further been divided into the following three categories. Click here for definitions.
Arnold R., Roberts B., 1990. Small primary schools: a report for education officers and advisers. International Journal of Educational Management 4 (5): 4-12
Barker, L. J., 1984. Junior school teachers: their methods and practice. Educational Research 26 (3): 178-188
Bell, A, Sigsworth, A., 1987. The small rural primary school: a matter of quality. The Falmer Press, East Sussex
Bouri, J., Barker, L.J., 1969. Too small to stream: a study of grouping in small junior schools. NFER: Slough
Cambridge University: Department of Education, 1981. A positive approach to rural primary schools: A Cambridge policy study in education. Department of Education, University of Cambridge
Coopers and Lybrand, 1993. Good management in small schools. DfEE
Cornall, J.N., 1986. The small school: achievements and problems. Education Today 36 (1) 25-36
Davies, E., 1992. The small primary school: Problem or paradigm Forum 17 (3): 76-78
Forward, B., 1988. Teaching in the smaller school. CUP: Cambridge
Francis, L.J., 1992. Primary school size and pupil attitudes: small is happy? Educational Management and Administration 20 (2): 100-104
Galton, M., Patrick, H.eds., 1990. Curriculum provision in the small primary school Routledge: London
Galton, M. et al., 1991. The rural schools curriculum enhancement national evaluation (SCENE) project: Final report. Department of Education and Science: London, England
Galton, M., 1993. Managing education in small primary schools. ASPE paper number 4
Gregory, R., 1975. The educational advantages of the small primary school. Forum 17 (3): 79-81
Hargreaves, L., Comber, C, Galton, M., 1996. The national curriculum: can small schools deliver? Confidence and competence levels of teachers in small rural primary schools. British Educational Research Journal, 22(1): 89-99.
Harrison, D.A., Busher, H., 1995. Small schools, big ideas: primary education in rural areas. The British Journal of Educational Studies 43 (4): 384-397
Hayes, D., 1999. Organising learning in mixed age classes: a case study about a multi-task lesson. Curriculum 20(2): 100-109.
Hopkins, D.; Ellis. P.D., 1991. The effective small primary school: some significant factors. School Organisation 11 (1): 115-122
Howells,R., 1982. Curriculum provision in the small primary school. Cambridge Institute of Education: Cambridge
Keast, D., 1987. Small schools primary: perspectives 30. School of Education, University of Exeter: Exeter
Keast, D., 1991. Small schools in clusters. Exeter Small Schools Network: Exeter
Keast, D., 1992. Small schools after ERA: 1992 (the second) survey. Exeter Small Schools Network: Exeter
Keast, D., 1992. Small rural primary schools: a resource book. Exeter Small Schools Network: Exeter
Nash, R., Williams H.L., Evans, M., 1976. The one-teacher school. British Journal of Educational Studies 24 (1): 12-32
Nash, R., 1977. Perceptions of the village school. Research Intelligence 3 (1): 10-13
Nash, R., 1978. More evidence in support of village schools. Where 139: 189-190
Office for Standards in Education, 2000. Small schools: How well are they doing? A report by OFSTED based on the data from inspections and national test results. Report available at www.official-documents.co.uk/document/ofsted
Scottish Education Department, 1981. Off the beaten track: Studies of education in rural areas of Scotland. HMSO: Edinburgh
Vulliamy G.; Webb, R., 1995. The implementation of the National Curriculum in small primary schools. Educational Review 47 (1): 25-41
Williams, I., Thorpe, R., 1997. In-service education of teachers in small primary schools in Wales. British Journal of In-service Education, 23(2): 179-192.
Day, Barbara, Hunt, G. H., 1975. Multiage classrooms: An analysis of verbal communication Elementary School Journal 75: 458-464
Dixon, A., 1978. Vertical grouping - A practice or a principle? Forum 21 (1): 19-21
Draisey, A.G., 1985. Vertical grouping in the primary school - a positive view. Education for Development 9 (1): 3-11
Ford, B.E., 1977. Multiage grouping in the elementary school and children's affective development: a review of recent research. The Elementary School Journal Nov 1977: 149-159
Mycock, M. A., 1967. A comparison of vertical grouping and horizontal grouping in the infant school. British Journal of Educational Psychology 37: 133-135
Mycock, M.A., 1970. Vertical grouping. In Vincent, R (ed.) Teaching in the British primary school. Macmillan: London
Siu-Runyan, Y., 1991. Learning from students: an important aspect of classroom organization Language Arts 68 (2): 100-107
Way, J.W., 1979. Verbal interactions in multiage classrooms. The Elementary School Journal 79 (3): 178-186
Bennett, N., O'Hare, E., Lee J., 1983. Mixed-age classes in primary schools: a survey of practice. British Educational Research Journal 9 (1 ): 41-56
Bennett, N. et al., 1987. Task processes in mixed and single aged classes. Education 3-13, March 1987: 43-50
Galton, M., Simon, B., Croll, P., 1980. Inside the primary classroom. Routledge: London
Galton, M., Simon, B. eds., 1980. Progress and performance in the primary classroom. Routledge and Kegan Paul: London
Griffin, D., Smith, R.A., 1978. Vertical grouping in secondary schools
Her Majesty's Inspector of Schools, 1978. Primary education in England. Department of Education and Science: London
Lee, J., 1984. Vertical grouping in the primary school: a report of a study by Lancaster University on behalf of the Schools Council. School Organisation 4 (2): 133-142
Cervera, S., 2000. Les classes à cours multiples: comment ça fonctionne ? (Multigrade classes: how does it work?). Mémoire IUFM PE2, Académie de Montpellier. Full text
Bustos Jiménez, A., 2006. A research study reveals that students from rural areas earn higher grades than student from urban areas
Depain, S., 2000. Enseigner dans des classes multicours(Multigrade teaching). Mémoire IUFM PE2, Académie de Montpellier. Full text
Laukkanen, R., Selventoinen, P., 1978. Small schools and combined grades in Finland. OECD, Centre for Educational Research and Innovation: Paris
Pedro, A-M., 2000. Comment gérer l’hétérogénéité des élèves en s’inspirant du fonctionnement de la classe multiniveaux et de l’école maternelle ?(Dealing with pupils’ heterogeneity by using some principles of multigrade teaching and kindergarten teaching). Mémoire IUFM PE2, Académie de Montpellier. Full text
Philippon, A., 1986. Guide pour classes à plusieurs niveaux (Guide for multigrade classes), Pédagogie pratique à l’école, Hachette Education, Paris.
Sundell, K., 1994. Comparative research on mixed-age groups in Swedish nursery and compulsory schools. European Childhood Education Research Journal, 2(2): 49-62.
Malmros, A., Norlen, C., 1984. Aldersintegrerade klasser: forekomst och spridning. Stockholm Institutionen for Pedagogik: Stockholm, Sweden
Malmros, A., Sahlin, B., 1992. ldersintegrerade klasser I grundskolan forekomst och spridning: uppfoljande kartlaggning lasaret 1987/88. Hogskolan for lararutbildning i Stockholm Institutionen for barn och ungdomsvetenskap: Stockholm, Sweden
Marklund, S., 1969. School organisation, school location and student achievement. International Review of Education 15: 295-318
Roelofs, E., Raemaekers, J., Veenman, S., 1991. Improving instructional and classroom management skills: effects of a staff development programme and coaching. School effectiveness and school improvement 2 (3): 192-212
Veenman, S., Lem, P., Winkelmolen, B., 1985. Active learning time in mixed age classes. Educational Studies 11 (3): 171-180
Veenman, S., Lem, P., Roelofs, E., 1989. Training teachers in mixed-age classrooms: effects of a staff development programme. Educational Studies 15 (2): 165-180
Veenman, S., Voeten, M., Lem, P., 1987. Classroom time and achievement in mixed age classes. Educational Studies 13 (1): 75-88
The literature has further been divided into the following geographical categories:
Berry, C., 1996. Multi-grade teaching in Steward L.; Thomas E. (eds.) Caribbean Issues and Developments. London: Commonwealth Secretariat pp127-132.
Berry, C., 2001. Achievement effects of multigrade and monograde schools in the Turks and Caicos Islands. Unpublished PhD thesis: Institute of Education, University of London.
Berry, C., 2001. Achievement effects of multigrade and monograde schools in the Turks and Caicos Islands. Unpublished PhD thesis: Institute of Education, University of London. Abstract
Berry, C. 2002. Multigrade teaching: implications for the continuing professional development of teachers in the Caribbean. In Thomas, E., 2002, Teacher Education: Dilemmas and Prospects. Kogan Page, London: 183-192.
Commonwealth Secretariat, 1997. Teacher education modules for multi-grade teaching modules 1-9 (DRAFT) Commonwealth Secretariat: London
Goldberg, N., 2001. Report on the 2000 grade 2 national assessment. Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Measurement and Evaluation Unit, Dominica.
Gritzman, N., 1998. Teaching in the Multigrade Classroom. A Pack of Materials to Support Teachers in Multigrade Classrooms in Stann Creek District, Belize. Belize Teacher's Training College, Belize
Nielsen, H.D., Gillette, E., Thompson, E., 1993. Multigrade teaching in Belize: current practice and its relation to student achievement. Ministry of Education: Belize City, Belize
Wright, W., 2000. Belize experience of multigrade teaching. Paper presented at Commonwealth Secretariat Regional workshop on multigrade teacher training modules. Gaberone, Botswana
Benveniste, L.A., McEwan, P.J., 2000. Constraints to implementing educational innovations: The case of multigrade schools. International Review of Education, 46 (1/2): 31-48
Colbert, V., Chiappe, C., Arboleda, J., 1993 The New School Program: more and better primary education for children in rural areas in Colombia In Levin, Henry M; Lockheed, Marlene, E. Effective schools in developing countries. World Bank: Washington
Colbert, V., 1999. Improving the access and quality of education for the rural poor: the case of the New School in Colombia. Development of primary education in Africa: a refresher study programme for World Bank Staff: IDS, University of Sussex
Colbert, V., 2002. Improving the access and quality of education for the rural poor: the case of the New School in Colombia. Paper delivered at a conference entitled 'Education for All: Enhancing the quality and ensuring excellence' (Insitute of Education, University of London, 22nd November, 2002).
McEwan, P., 1998. The effectiveness of multigrade schools in Colombia. International Journal of Educational Development 18 (6): 435-452
McEwan, P.J., Benveniste, L., 2001. The politics of school reform: Escuela Nueva in Colombia. Journal of Edcuation Policy, 16 (6): 547-559
McGinn, N.F., 1998. Resistance to good ideas: Escuela Nueva in Colombia in Buchert, L (Ed.) Education Reform in the South in the 1990's, Paris: UNESCO
Psacharopoulos George, Rojas Carlos, Velez Eduardo, 1992. Achievement evaluation of Colombia's escuela nueva. Is multigrade the answer? The World Bank Technical Department, Latin America and the Carribean region.
Psacharopoulos, G., Rojas, C., Velez E., 1993. Achievement evaluation of Colombia's Escuela Nueva: is multigrade the answer? Comparative Education Review, 37 (3): 263-276.
Rugh, A. and Bossert, H., 1998. Involving communities: participation in the delivery of education programmes. Creative Associates Inc, Washington DC.
Saito, Y., 1999. 'Escuela Nueva (New School)' in Colombia: a successful example of primary educational innovation in developing countries. Naigai kyoiku, no. 5060, pp.7-9 (original in Japanese). Full text
Schiefelbein, E., 1991. In search of the school of the XXI century: is the Colombian Escuela Nueva the right pathfinder? UNESCO Regional Office in Latin America and the Caribbean/UNICEF: Santiago, Chile.
Torres, R.M., 1991. Escuela nueva: una innovacion desde el estado. Instituto Fronesi: Quito
Torres, R.M., 1992. Alternatives in formal education: Colombia's Escuela Nueva. Prospects, 22(4): 510-520
World Bank/UNICEF, 1996. Towards a new school for the 21st century: Teacher's learning guides for the organisation of primary education in multigrade schools. Initiation Workshop, UNICEF Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean
Ames, P., 1999. Mejorando la escuela rural: tres decadas de experiencias educativas en el Peru. IEP, Peru, Report Number: 96.
Ames, P., 2001. ¿Libros para todos? Maestros y textos escolares en el Perú rural (Books for all? Teachers and school textbooks in rural Peru). Consorcio de Investigaciones Económicas y Sociales/Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima.
Ames, P., 2006. A multigrade approach to literacy in the Amazon, Peru: School and community perspectives. In: Little, A. (ed), Education for All and Multigrade Teaching: Challenges and Opportunities. Springer, Dordrecht
Ministerio de Educacion, 1995. Estructura curricular para centros educativos unitarios. Ministerio de educacion: programma de educacion basica para todos: Lima, Peru
Montero, C. et al.,1999. La escuela rural: estudio para identificar modalidades y prioridades de intervencion. IEP: Lima, Peru.
Montero, C. et al., 2001. La escuela rural: Estudio para identificar modalidades y prioridades de intervención. Documento de trabajo No.2. Ministerio de Educación - MECEP. Lima. Full text
Secritaria nacional de educacion-UNICEF, 1996. Orientaciones metodologicas para atencion a escuelas multigrado. Secritaria nacional de educacion-UNICEF: Lima, Peru
Sepúlveda, Gastón, 2000. Las escuelas multigrado. Aspectos generales y propuesta metodológica. GTZ-MECEP/ Ministerio de Educación- KFW, Lima.
CONAFE, 1996. Educacion comunitaria rural: una experiencia mexicana. Consejo Nacional de Fomento Educativo, Mexico City
Harbison, R.,Hanushek, E.A., 1992. Educational performance of the poor: lessons from rural northeast Brazil. OUP for the World Bank: Oxford
Juarez et al., 1992. Multigrade schools: An information packet. US Agency for International Development Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean, Office of Development Resources, Education and Human Resources Division. Report Number: (Contract) LAC 0032 C 00 9036 00
Chesterfield, R. 1994. Indicators of democratic behaviour in Nueva Escuela Unitaria (NEU) schools. for Juarez and Associates United States Agency for International Devleopment/Guatemala.
Ministerio de Educacion, 1996 La escuela rural guatemalteca en los albores del tercer milenio: genesis de una nueva escuela unitaria. Memoria tecnica de la experiencia piloto. Ministerio de Educacion Guatemala: Guatemala City, Guatemala
Subirats, J., Nogales, I., Gottret, G., 1991. Proyecto escuela multigrado. Evaluacion de su desarrollo en areas rurales de Bolivia. UNICEF/CEBIAE: Bolivia
Tatto, M.T., 1999. Education for the rural poor in the context of educational reform: the case of Mexico. Paper presented at Oxford International Conference for Education and Development: Oxford
UNICEF, 1997. Los ninios han sido nuestro espejo. Sistematizacion de una experiecia de mejoramiento de la calidad de la educacion basica en cinco areas rurales. Proandes-Ecuador/UNICEF
The literature from Asia and the pacific has further been subdivided into the following categories:
Abhayadeva, C.M., 1989. Development of multi-grade and multi-level teaching strategies: towards qualitative development of primary education in Sri Lanka. National Institute of Education, Maharagama, Sri Lanka.
Bhatacharjee, D.K., 1998. How to operationalise research-based interventions/strategies to improve the pedagogy of rural primary schools in multigrade context? Regional Institute of Education , National Council of Education and Research and Training ( NCERT) , New Delhi.
Ekanayaka, S.B.; Mohottige, U.S., 1989. Disparity in achievement: A case study of Sri Lanka. National Institute of Education, Sri Lanka
Jayawardena, A.A., 1995. A study on the factors affecting the educational achievement of students in multigrade schools in disadvantaged areas in Sri Lanka. Unpublished PhD Thesis: University of Colombo, Sri Lanka
Aikman S., Pridmore P., 1999. Multigrade teaching and learning: a study of classroom practice and teacher education in northern Vietnam. Institute of Education, University of London.
Aikman, S., Pridmore, P., 2001. Multigrade schools in 'remote' areas of Vietnam. International Journal of Educational Development, 21 (6): 521-536.
Grady, H. et al., 1998. Education for poor children: Research findings from Lao Cai Province, Vietnam. Oxfam Great Britain, Vietnam Country Programme
Haugen, V.R., 1998. Evaluation of ethnic minority education project Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam. Save the Children (UK), Hanoi, Vietnam
Kich Pham Vu et al., 1995 Teacher Training Modules on methods and techniques of multigrade teaching and learning (Module 4, module 5, module 6). UNICEF: Hanoi
Meyenn, B., Squires, D., Woolley, M., 1994. Evaluation of the multigrade teaching project in Vietnam. UNICEF: Hanoi, Vietnam.
Ministry of Education and Training, year unknown. Multigrade teaching for primary age children. UNICEF Hanoi/Ministry of Education and Training: Vietnam
Oxfam, Save the Children, UNICEF, 1998. Beyond 20/20: the Vulnerable Family - challenges for education. Oxfam, Save the Children, UNICEF: Hanoi, Vietnam
Pridmore, P., Son, V., 2006. Adapting the curriculum for teaching health in multigrade classes in Vietnam. In: Little, A. (ed), Education for All and Multigrade Teaching: Challenges and Opportunities. Springer, Dordrecht
Son, V., Pridmore P., Nga, B.. My D., and Kick P., 2002. Renovating the teaching of health in multigrade primary schools: A teacher's guide to health in natural and social sciences (Grades 1,2,3) and Science (grade 5). British Council /National Institute of Educational Sciences: Hanoi, Vietnam. Full text.
Tran Thi thanh, Bui Thi Phuong Nga, and Le Son, 2000. Multigrade teaching in southern provinces of Vietnam. The British Council: Vietnam
Trang, Nguyen Q et al., 1998. Basic education for the poor: constraints to access in three communities of Huomg Khe district, Ha tinh Province. Oxfam GB, Hanoi, Vietnam: Hanoi, Vietnam
UNICEF, 1998. An evaluation of the multigrade and bilingual education project. UNICEF: Hanoi, Vietnam
UNICEF, 1995. Multi-grade teaching and learning in Vietnam. Audiovisual Material, UNICEF
UNICEF Vietnam/Ministry of Education and Training, 1998. Multigrade and bilingual education classes in primary school in Vietnam. UNICEF/MoET: Hanoi, Vietnam. Link to extracts Teacher Training Modules
Bharadway, N.S., Boda, A., 1998. Multigrade teaching in small schools. Paper presented at Conference on Learning Organisation, Community Participation and School Effectiveness at Primary Stage: International perspective 1998. National Council of Educational Research and Training, Delhi, India.
GOI/UN, 1999. A list of important material for MGT. JANSHALA 2 (3). Available from Janshala
GOI/UN, 1999. Workshop on teacher development in multigrade context. Janshala 2 (3). Available from Janshala
Gupta, D.,Jain, M., Bala, N., 1996. Multigrade teaching - status and implications. National Council of Educational Research and Training, India
Hussain, R., Retallik, J., 2005. ‘Teaching and Learning in Multigrade Classes’, in Retallick, J, and Farah, I. Transforming Schools in Pakistan: towards the learning community, Karachi, Oxford University Press
Kamat, K.N., 1998. Management and organisation of learning in multilevel/multigrade situations for school effectiveness. Paper delivered at Seminar on Studies on Learning Organisation, Community Participation and School Effectiveness at Primary Stage: International Perspective: National Council of Educational Research and Training, India
Khan, J.W., 2006. School Improvement in Multigrade Situation (SIMS): An innovation of the PDCC: Karachi
Khan, J.W. and Khan, S.A., 2007. School Improvement in a Multigrade Situation. An Action Research carried out in Chitral-Pakistan. Unpublished article.
Muthayan, S., 1999. Case studies of multigrade teaching in India and Canada: implications for improving primary school effectiveness. Paper presented at International Seminar of Researches in School Effectiveness at Primary Level: National Council of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi, India.
Rishi Valley Education Centre, 2000. Report of second national workshop on planning and implementation of multigrade programmes. Rishi Valley Education Centre, Krishamurti Foundation India, Rishi Valley, Andhra Pradesh.
Rowley, S.D., 1992. Multigrade classrooms in Pakistan: how teacher conditions and practices affect student achievement. Unpublished PhD Thesis: Harvard University
Sinha, S., 1998. Vidhi mein nidhi (A trainer's handbook on multigrade teaching). National Council of Educational Research and Training: Bihar, India
Swarnalekha, N., 1999. Application of multiple interventions for reducing the work load of teachers and enhancement in attainment of competencies in students of rural multigrade primary schools. Paper presented at the international seminar in researches in school effectiveness at primary level: National Council for Educational Research and Training, New Delhi, India
Angeles-Bautista, F. (ed.), 1994. The multigrade teacher's handbook. BEE/DECS/UNICEF: Philippines.
Barsaga, E.B, Lacuesta, D.P., 1997. An evaluation of the multigrade program in Philippine education. South East Asian Ministers of Education Organization, Regional Center for Educational Innovation and Technology (SEAMEO INNOTECH).
Basic Primary Education Project, 2000. Multigrade teacher training manual (for teachers). Primary Teacher Training Unit, Sanothimi, Nepal.
Birch, I.(Ed), 1993. Multigrade teaching bulletin 1993. Asia-Pacific Centre of Educational Innovation for Development: Bangkok.
Birch, I., Lally, M., 1995. Multigrade teaching in primary schools. Asia-Pacific Centre of Educational Innovation for Development: Bangkok. Full text
Bureau of Elementary Education, Department of Education Culture and Sports, 1994. The multigrade teacher's handbook. Department of Education Culture and Sports/UNICEF Philippines
CERID, 1988. Multigrade teaching in primary schools of Nepal (part1-3). Research Centre for Educational Innovation and Development, Kathmandu
CERID, 1989. Multigrade teaching in primary schools Research Centre for Educational Innovation and Development, Kathmandu
Collingwood, I., 1991. Multiclass teaching in primary schools: a handbook for teachers in the Pacific. UNESCO Office for the Pacific States: Apia, Western Samoa. Full text
Ewing, J.L., 1970. Development of the New Zealand primary school curriculum 1877-1970. New Zealand Council for Educational Research: Wellington
Farrell, J.P., 1999. Improving educational quality in Pakistan and Nepal: Local and international perspectives (draft). Ontario Institute for Studies in Education/University of Toronto
Hamzah, M.D., Raman, S., 1988. Sabah multiple class project Phase II: project evaluation report. Education Department, Sabah
King, S., Young, P., 1996. Opening the door on best practice: contrasting teaching styles in the multigrade classroom. Education in Rural Australia 6 (1): 28-36
Loewe, M.A., 1997. Issues in basic education: the Department of Education, Culture and Sports. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 431689.
Miguel, M.M., Barsaga E.B., 1997. Multi-grade schooling in the Philippines, a strategy for improving access to and quality of primary education. In Chapman, D.W.; Mahlck, L.O.; Smulders, A.E.M. (eds.) From planning to action: government initiatives for improving school-level practice. Pergamon/UNESCO: Oxford/Paris
Pratt, C. and Treacy, K. 1986. A study of student grouping practices in early childhood classes in western Australian government primary schools (Co-operative Research Series No. 9). Education Department of Western Australia: Nedlands.
Regalado, M.R.M., 2004. A Model for Multigrade Class Impementation in Pre-service Teaching. Institution: Philippine Normal University, Manila
Russell, V.J. et al., 1998. Effects of multigrade classes on student progress in literacy and numeracy: quantitative evidence and perceptions of teachers and school leaders. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Australian Association for Research in Education, Adelaide, Australia, November 29-December 3, 1998. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 444122.
Available from: htttp://www.swin.edu.au/aare/98pap/rus98154.html
Shaeffer, S., 1990. Educational change in Indonesia. International Development Research Centre: Ottawa, Canada.
Suzuki, T., 2000. Multigrade teaching: does it exist in Nepal? Journal of Education and Development, Research Centre for Educational Innovation and Development, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, pp.91-103.
UNESCO/APEID, 1981. Education of disadvantaged groups and multiple class teaching: studies and innovative approaches. UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific: Bangkok
UNESCO/APEID, 1982. Multiple class teaching and education of disadvantaged groups. UNESCO Office for Asia and Pacific: Bangkok
UNESCO/APEID, 1988. Multiple class teaching in primary schools: a methodological guide. UNESCO Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific: Bangkok
UNESCO/APEID, 1989. Multigrade teaching in single-teacher primary schools: Asia and the Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development: Bangkok
UNESCO/APEID, 1995. Managing schools for better quality: multigrade teaching and school clusters. UNESCO Principal Regional office for Asia and the Pacific: Bangkok.
Yeoman, L., Seta, T., 1986. The use of multi-grade classes in community schools: status, problems and potential. Research and Evaluation Unit, Department of Education, Waigani, Port Moresby.
Aikman, S., Hanan, H., 2006. EFA for pastoralists in North Sudan: A mobile multigrade model of schooling. In: Little, A. (ed), Education for All and Multigrade Teaching: Challenges and Opportunities. Springer, Dordrecht.
Akyeampong, A. K., 2006. Extending basic education to out-of-school children in Northern Ghana: What can multigrade schooling teach us? In: Little, A. (ed), Education for All and Multigrade Teaching: Challenges and Opportunities. Springer, Dordrecht.
Jarousse, J-P., Mingat, A., 1991. Efficacite pedagogique de l'enseignment a cours multiples dans le contexte africain. [The educational efficiency of multigrade teaching in the African context]. IREDU-CNRS: University of Dijon.
Jarousse, J.P; Mingat, A., 1992. L'ecole primaire en Afrique: Fonctionnement, qualite, produits. Le cas du Togo. (The primary school in Africa: function, quality, results. The case of Togo). Dijon, France: Universite de Bourgnone, Institut de Recherche sur Leconomie de L'Education
Joubert, J. 2007. Adapted/Adjusted Curriculum for Multigraded teaching in Africa: A real solution? Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa. Unpublished paper.
Kotze, H., 2000. Struggling no more. An evaluation of Molteno's multigrade foundation phase classroom model. The Molteno project, Braamfontein, Johannesburg, South Africa
Kazibwe, F.M., 2004. An Assessment of the Strengths and Weaknesses of Multi-Grade Teaching in Kalangala District (Alternative Methods of Providing Formal Basic Education. An Assessment of the Strengths and Weaknesses of Multi-Grade Teaching in Kalangala District. A Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of The Degree of Master of Management Studies (Public Administration and Management) of Uganda Management Institute.
Lungwangwa, G., 1989. Multi-grade schools in Zambian primary education: a report on the pilot schools in Mkushi District. Report number 47 for SIDA Education Division: Stockholm, Sweden
Miller, B.A., Eldin, H.E., 2000. A study of Egyptian one classroom schools in the governorates of Behaira, Beni-Suef, and Minia. Cairo, Egypt: A report by Learnlink Egypt for USAID/Egyptian Ministry of Education
Ministere de l'education de base et de l'alphabetisation, 1996. Reunion d'experts pour l'amelioration des ecoles a maitres uniques et a classes multigrades: communication du Mali. Inter-regional workshop on single teacher schools and multigrade classes: Lillehammer, Norway
Ministere de l'enseignment de base et de l'alphabetisation, 1996. L'impact des innovations pedagogiques sur l'augmentation de l'offre educative et du taux de scolarisation. Inter-regional workshop on single teacher schools and multigrade classes. Lillehammer, Norway
Ministry of General Education and Culture, 1985. Multi-grade teaching system. Malcolm Moffat Teacher's College: Zambia
Odyek-Ocen, M., 2000. Ugandan experience with multigrade teaching. Paper presented at Commonwealth Secretariat Regional Workshop on Multigrade Teaching Modules: Gaberone, Botswana
Zaalouk, M., 1995. The children of the Nile. UNESCO: Cairo
Berry, C., 2000. Multigrade teaching: a discussion document. Paper delivered at Commonwealth Secretariat Multigrade Workshop (Gaberone, Botswana, 19-21 July, 2000). Full text
Bray, M., 1987. Are small schools the answer? Cost-effective strategies for rural school provision. Commonwealth Secretariat: London.
Cash, T., 2000. Models of multigrade teaching. Paper delivered at Symposium on Multigrade Teaching, Maharagama, Sri lanka, 21st September 2000. Full text
Centre Departemental de Documentation Pedagogique du Haut-Rhin, 2002. La Classe Unique. CDDP.
Concilus, J and R., unknown year. Research in Multigrade, Multiage & Nongraded Education. Nelson Lagoon School, Anchorage. Link to the site Research on multigrade and multiage education
Cummings, W.K., 1986. Low-cost primary education: implementing an innovation in six nations IDRC: Ottawa.
Eric Clearing House, unknown date. Multiage classroom bibliography. Eric Website. Link to
Gordon, W.,1996. Enhancing the effectiveness of single-teacher schools and multi-grade classes: situation and challenges. UNESCO and the Royal Ministry of Education Research and Church Affairs: Norway
Gutierrez, R., Slavin, R.E., 1992. Achievement effects of the nongraded elementary school: a best evidence synthesis. Review of Educational Research 62 (4): 333-376.
Hargreaves, E., 2001. Assessment for learning in the multigrade classroom. International Journal of Educational Development, 21(6): 553-560.
Hargreaves, E., Montero, C., Chau, N., Sibli, M., Thanh, T., 2001. Multigrade Teaching in Peru, Sri Lanka and Vietnam: an overview. International Journal of Educational Development, 21 (6): 499-520.
Little, A.W.,1995. Multi-grade teaching: a review of research and practice. ODA: London. Full text
Little, A.W., 2001. Multigrade teaching: towards an international research and policy agenda. International Journal of Educational Development, 21 (6):481-498.
Lockheed, M.E., Verspoor, A.M., 1991. Improving primary education in developing countries. Oxford University Press/World Bank: Oxford/Washington
Mason, D.A., Burns, R.B., 1997. Reassessing the effects of combination classes. Educational Research and Evaluation 3 (1): 1-53
Miller, B.A., 1990. A review of the quantitative research on multigrade instruction. Research in Rural Education 7 (1): 1-8
Miller, B.A., 1991. A review of the qualitative research on multigrade education Journal of Research in Rural Education 7 (2): 3-12
Miller, B., 1991. Teaching and learning in the multigrade classroom: student performance and instructional routines. ERIC Digest Number EDO-RC-91-6.
Nielsen, D., 1995. Multigrade teaching rapid appraisal procedure. Education Development Center, Washingrton DC.
Noonan, R., Hallak, J., 1987. Multi-age instructional settings in less developed countries Prospects 17 (4): 607-625
Phillips, E., 1997. A critique of the existing research into small primary schools. British Journal of Educational Studies 45 (3): 235-247
Pratt, D., 1986. On the merits of multiage classrooms. Research in Rural Education 3 (3): 111-115
Rowley, S.D., Nielsen, H.D., 1997. School and classroom organisation in the periphery. The assets of multigrade teaching. In Nielsen, D.H.; Cummings, W.K. (eds.) Quality education for all: Community oriented approach. Garland Publishing Inc.: New York and London
Sher, J.P., 1978. Education in sparsely populated areas of developed nations. Educational Forum 43 (1): 83-88
Socrates, J.B. ed., 1983. The IMPACT system of mass primary education. SEAMEO Regional Center for Educational Innovation and Technology: Quezon City
Thomas, C., Shaw, C., 1992. Issues in the development of multigrade schools. World Bank Technical Paper 172: Washington
UNESCO, 1996. Inter-regional workshop on single teacher schools and multigrade classes: final report. UNESCO and the Royal Ministry of Education Research and Church Affairs: Norway
UNESCO, 1996. Inter-regional workshop on single teacher schools and multigrade classes: synthesis of case studies UNESCO and the Royal Ministry of Education Research and Church Affairs: Norway
UNESCO, 1996. Inter-regional workshop on single teacher schools and multigrade classes: working document UNESCO and Royal Ministry of Education Research and Church Affairs: Norway
UNESCO, 1996. Inter-regional workshop on single teacher schools and multigrade classes: bibliography UNESCO and the Royal Ministry of Education Research and Church Affairs: Norway.
UNESCO, 2001. A handbook for teachers of multigrade classes (volume 1). UNESCO: France.
UNESCO, 2001. A handbook for teachers of multigrade classes (volume 2). UNESCO: France.
UNESCO/IBE, 1961. The one-teacher school (24th international conference on public education). International Bureau of Education: Paris
United Nations, 1996. Joint UN system support for community based primary education. UN Report Number UN/96/001
Veenman, S., 1995. Cognitive and noncognitive effects of multigrade and multi-age classes: a best-evidence synthesis. Review of Educational Research 65 (4): 319-381
Veenman, S., 1997. Combination classes revisited. Educational Research and Evaluation 3 (3): 262-276. Abstract available at Simon Veenman